Bayon was built by the reign of the famous king JayavarmanVII in the late 12th century to early 13th century. Bayon is a heart of Angkor Thom capital city. It is a Buddhist temple and it was the last mountain temple in Khmer Arts and consecrated to the Buddhist cult.
Bayon Temple is very great with its age, beauty, and its splendor in the Angkor Kingdom, It has life nearly 1000s years. This temple is very interesting after Angkor wat , and million of tourism visit there.
The Bayon was built nearly 100 years after Angkor Wat temple. While its basic structure and earliest part of the temple are unknown, it is clear that Bayon temple was built on the top of an earlier monument that the temple was not built one time. It was the Gold Tower with four face and there are 54 tower represented Khmer provinces in the Great Khmer Empire Period( Angkor period). The iconography of the four faces represent the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara and it is generally accepted that the four faces on each of the towers are images of king Jayavarman VII and mean the omnipresence of the king. And it also symbole the four smiling face as charming smile , sad smile, glad smile and beautiful smile.
Bayon Temple is surrounded by two long walls bearing an extraodinary collect of bas-relief scenes of legendary and historical events. In all, there are total of more than 11000 carved figures over 1.2km of wall. Many of legendary scenes are found repeatedly on Cambodian monuments and can be easily recognized. On Bayon gallery most talk about The battle between Khmer and Champa, Cambodian daily life and many legends there.
The surrounding wall is opened up by five gates, 4 on the axis of the Bayon, the fifth is in the axis of Phimeanakas and the second Angkor. the surrounding wall is rampart that protected the capital city from enemy, and its so strong rampart. All the fave gates decorated by Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara head and the sculpture of Churning of ocean of Milk as well.
During the reign of Jayavarman leaded the Angkor Thom city ,it was a time that is the most splendor in South East Asia, He was the most powerful king and during his reign, many temple was built to identify his power and splendid. But after his death ,the Angkor Thom Kingdom became weakness and So in that time, that the Angkor Kingdom was abandoned. This Kingdom stand along so long time in the forest until french found it.
When I visit there i feel splendor and magic that people in that time constructed all the Temple in Angkor Kingdom, and The Architecture plan is the greatest. You should try visit there some day :))).